2024 : 5 : 25
Shadmehr Mirdar Harijani

Shadmehr Mirdar Harijani

Academic rank: Professor
Education: PhD.
Faculty: Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences
Address: Professor of Exercise Physiology, Dep. of Exercise physiology, Faculty of sports Sciences, University of Mazandaran P.O.Box 47415-388 Babolsar,Mazandaran Province, IRAN Tel: +98 +111+35302201 & 35302254 Fax: +98+ 111+35302201
Phone: 01135302254


Association between dietary antioxidant quality score and severity of coronavirus infection: a case–control study
DAQS, COVID-19, antioxidant, diet, ICU
Journal Frontiers in Nutrition
Researchers mobina aghajani ، Alexia Wong ، Mehdi Azimi ، Shadmehr Mirdar Harijani


The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQS) and the severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present case–control study was carried out on 295 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (≥18 years old), including 104 critical patients (Intensive care unit [ICU] admission) and 191 COVID-19 patients without severe complications (Non-intensive care unit [Non-ICU] patients) as cases. Dietary intake was assessed by a 147-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the considered risk factors. Our outcomes (after multivariate adjustment) suggested that higher adherence to DAQS was significantly associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19 infection severity (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04–0.29, p < 0.001). Similar results were seen when analyzed by sex [men (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.002–0.15, p < 0.001) and women (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06–0.68, p = 0.012)]. A significant association between vitamin D3 intake and decreased risk of COVID-19 severity (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.89–0.94, p < 0.001) was also observed. Moreover, multivariate results revealed that there were no significant associations between vitamin C (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99–1.00, p = 0.067), vitamin E (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.86–1.11, p = 0.798), zinc (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86–1.20, p = 0.805), and selenium (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99–1.00, p = 0.077) intakes with the risk of COVID-19 severity. However, subgroup analyses by sex suggested a significant association between vitamin C intake and the risk of COVID-19 infection severity in women (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 1.00–1.00, p = 0.028). Our findings showed a negative association between DAQS adherence and the risk of COVID-19 infection severity. Our results may be used to develop potential dietary therapies to decrease COVID-19 severity.